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How Does the Three-Phase Alternator Work?
Publish Time: 2021-08-03   Views: 7157

A three-phase alternator consists of three coil windings, contrary to a single-phase alternator, which has one winding. An alternator aims to produce AC (alternating current) stator output with two basic winding designs: delta wound and wye style. Each of the windings has a separate phase of the current, i.e., three currents with three phases. 

Alternators, in general, exist of two types; single-phase alternators and three-phase alternators, though the latter is more efficient than the former. While based on applications and output voltage, alternators exist in different types, including marine alternators, brushless alternators, diesel-electric locomotive alternators, and high/low voltage alternators. Revolving armature and revolving field alternators are indeed two other types of alternators. Nonetheless, the kind with revolving armature is rarely used. The reason is that the armature usually remains stationary. 


Application of the Three-Phase Alternator

The three-phase alternator proves its usefulness majorly in data centers and telecommunication sectors. That is because alternators can generate AC power with better dynamic performance, higher efficiency, lower temperature rise, and improved quality standards. Besides that, it is also used for power generation, railway industry, mining industry, military, breeding industry, shipbuilding industry, and other industrial applications, to name a few. The high efficiency of the three-phase alternator makes it ideal for all these industries and many more.


The Working Principle of the Three-Phase Alternator

After knowing the types and applications of the three-phase alternator, it is wise for you to understand its working principle. Thus, let's introduce the structure of the three-phase generator first and then introduce how it operates from simple to profound

The Structure

The basic structure of the three-phase alternator, or synchronous generator, consists of three identical embedded coils attached to a central stator core as the circumference of the entire network. Furthermore, the coils are 120 degrees apart. A neutral line also exists that interconnects the three coils. The other end of the coils is outgoing and is called the phase line. 


Three-Phase Voltages

Since we are talking about a three-phase alternator, each coil creates its separate phase or voltage, which might be the same in magnitude in each coil. Similar to the angle separating them, the phases are also at a difference of 120 degrees from each other. The voltage magnitude induced in each phase relies on the rotor flux, the number/position of the phase conductors, and the rotor speed. In addition, the induced voltage frequency matches the rotor's speed per second due to only two poles. But certain variations can exist in different three-phase alternator models.


How Voltage Control for an Alternator Is Accomplished

Voltage control can be achieved by the use of an Automatic Voltage Regulator or AVR for short. The device exists at the heart of electronics such as alternators. It helps regulate output voltage by controlling the excitation current of the generator's AC exciter.


How the Field of an Alternator Is Established

The rotor is one of the critical components that generate power in the three-phase alternator. It spins the stationary coil windings around a fixed iron core, the stator/armature. The magnetic field from the rotor subsequently produces an alternating current in the stator.


Operation of Three-Phase Alternators

A three-phase alternator works on the principle that an electromagnetic force (emf) is induced in the conductor when a conductor's flux alters. Essentially, the rotor takes tums at a constant speed. The three coils sequentially cut the magnetic force lines during rotation, resulting in the phase as the AC emf is induced. The induced emf magnitude is based on the rotation speed and the exciting current. But then again, it is the same in each armature winding phase.

Why Choose EvoTec For Your Three-Phase Alternators?

EvoTec has been working as a three-phase AC Synchronous alternator manufacturer dealing since 2011. As a generator manufacturer, we deal in several models and can help you find the one that may best fit your requirements. The power output, voltage, protection grade, and frequency can be somewhere between 6.8kW-4200kW, 110V-13,800V, IP21-IP55, and 50Hz-60Hz, respectively. 


What is more, EvoTec also provides troubleshooting services that can help you keep those three-phase alternators up and working. Henceforth, being the perfect option for you, you need to look no further. What's more, we have a self-owned brand with over thirty national patents. We are constantly committed to developing the best no-copy electronics and win applications worldwide. Suppose you have made up your mind and wish to own the business of a three-phase alternator. In that case, you must not fret. What can you do? Don't hesitate to contact us for any queries. We are committed to providing the best service for you. 

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